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     Knowledge of the soil. What is life all need to sustain soil and growth. Without soil, it can hardly be said that No life left in this world at all.

Soil is the source of the four factors, namely food, clothing, housing and treatment of human disease. This may be obtained by direct Or indirectly, any. Plants need soil to grow. Since the germination of seeds. Growth until the flower yield Soil is important because one thing or control. Determine plant growth. Thus, in the plant. It has to be savvy enough about the soil.

What plants from the soil has been sufficient to conclude the following.

- The roots hold the soil to stem the precipitous

- Gets its water from the soil and air.

- Has been almost all kinds of nutrients from the soil.

What is the definition of the soil, "soil" in agriculture. Will mean an object formed by the weathering of rocks and minerals, various mixed compound with litter and rotting carcasses. This is called organic matter. Objects that make up the soil, which is known to grow on different plants have.

Soil consists of four main parts.

1. Minerals.

2. Organic matter (litter and rotting carcasses.)

3. Water.

4. Air.

    1. Clay mineral composition of the minerals that Derived from the decomposition of rock weathering. And various minerals of many types. Vary by region.

Therefore, the soil in each area is composed of various elements do some very little different. And some types of minerals that the plants will suck up only used as food.

The mineral is most abundant elements in the soil is about 45% by volume.

    2. Organic matter in the soil from rotting decay scheme Of the fossil deposits of dead on the ground together. Organic soil is very important.

1. Is the source of some plant nutrients.

2. The soil can absorb water better.

3. The frozen soil to get more nutrients.

4. To improve soil structure.

Organic matter in soil. Despite a small amount. When compared with other components of the soil is about 5% by volume, but is a very important crop.

Most ground water comes from rain When rain falls, some rain into the soil permeability. And some of the runoff to the soil surface.

    3. The rain water into the soil permeability. Will be absorbed into the soil in the field. Each type of soil will absorb it much more unequal Sandy soil will absorb less than clay soil suitable for cultivation should be the water for about 25% by volume of soil water is not pure water. But with different minerals are dissolved and the plants will absorb certain minerals. Soluble in water used as food.

Plant food in the form of solution, so if, without water or moisture in the soil. Although there are many nutrients in the soil. Plants can not absorb more available.

The four components of the soil is air in the soil are important for plant growth as well. Because of that, the roots will suck up food that is available. Plant roots need energy. And the energy derived from respiration.

Thus, in soils with flooding or soil packed solid. Plants will not grow as expected. Because roots lack of air for breathing. It could not absorb nutrients more available.

Soil is a three-dimensional with the length, the width and depth.

- If we dig deep into the soil and observing soil inside the hole thoroughly. We can see that the soil can be divided into layers according to depth.

- Clay soil in each area are not the same. Class of soil is much less unequal and the shallow depth of each soil layer are not equal. Each color of the soil at different layers and different It also looks very different to other more.

We can also share the deep soil layers are not exactly the other two layers.

- Also known as topsoil layer soil tillage is a very important crop. Because the roots will penetrate China, most of this class food. Topsoil layer is a layer of organic matter than other soils are usually dark. Or darker than another class.

- In the soil with the crop to be around other topsoil thickness from 0 to 15 cm

- Ground floor roots of fruit trees. Trees will be Incheon China down to this floor. Regular ground floor is the floor with little organic matter.

- Land suitable for cultivation should be the top soil (topsoil and ground floor) of not less than 1 meter deep.

Soil properties. Related to plant growth. There are several very soil properties that indicate the rough Resolution of the soil was divided into roughly three other types of soil, sand, loam and clay.

1. Clay (Clay) is the most detailed soil texture. Flexible when wet, sticky hands or roll a cube mold lines long. Erosion is difficult to absorb water better clamping and nutrient exchange can be quite high, so there are many plant nutrients. It is recommended for transplanted rice because of water storage for very long.

2. Silty sand (Sand) is the land on the island together loose Drainage and the weather was very good. Erosion, water holding capacity was less easy to have low fertility because of the ability to catch hold less nutrients. Plants that depend on the soil water and nutrient deficiency is easy.

3. Loam (Loam) Soil texture is relatively soft resolution is fairly flexible. Moderately well drained. A mineral plant nutrients than sandy soil. Suitable for cultivation. Actual mold is often not found in nature. But they will find a similar soil loss is most

Soil properties that change is difficult. Despite the use of agricultural land, well known for a long time. It's a loam soil that is suitable for plant growth than clay and sand.

The pH of the soil. Also known as Phi. H.. (PH) of soil acidity of the soil is alkaline, saying it was a numeric value ranging from 0 to 14.

If the soil P values. H.. Less than 7 the soil is more acidic than 7, would be if the soil is very acid, c P.. H.. More than 7 is alkaline clay soils with P values. A. Chor. was just 7 indicates neutral soil.

Soil type, soil texture is like a fabric that is both coarse and fine. Textural properties of the soil. That indicates the size of the components in the soil. Indicate the rough and the resolution of Main components of the soil.

1. Soils are coarse sandy soil and loam. Particles are large, transparent or spaces in the soil much With good air circulation. Drain well it almost impossible to absorb the minerals. Very little food for plants. Because sand is not a mineral ore is broken down into plant nutrients and soil particles can not. Absorb minerals taken yet.

2. Soils include fine clay, sure enough. Because soil particles are very sticky very small particles are not well ventilated. Drainage and water holding capacity was very hard, but suck based clay. Some mineral nutrient well. It is the integrity of the soil mineral nutrient is high and soil tillage difficult.

3. Loam soil that does not display features a coarse and fine soil is clay soil tillage is fairly well ventilated well. Drain well. Able to absorb enough of the particles are mixed with clay tablets are reasonable. Soil suction is taken. Mineral nutrients necessary for plants to have. For crops and soil is considered ideal for fruits, but is most suitable soils. Because a mineral rich food.

The pH of the soil. As controls much of the nutrient. To melt out in the water in the soil. Much of the soluble nutrient that Range pH is different.

If the PH of the soil is too acid. Must be corrected for acidity by liming. As lime or marl time. Before planting. The number of cement to put it to know by collecting soil sent for analysis.

Soil fertility means much of the nutrient that plants can be useful. Soil fertility means. Soil nutrients very When the proper soil environment. Plant growth is good. The lack of soil fertility. Despite other environments suitable plants would not grow as expected even though the soil contains many minerals. However, minerals can be used as plant food, only 13 species only, which will be discussed further.

Each soil type has different minerals in unequal amounts. Minerals in soil those plants will not be useful at all. Is to be used only partially. Only the water soluble only in agricultural soils around the other nutrients often lacking in three elements are not sufficient for the needs of the plants are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium deficiency Yom soil fertility. Enrichment by fertilizing the soil to know that a conversion is fertile or do not need fertilizer or not. What type of fertilizer. How much of it. Need to be monitored or assessed the fertility of the soil to convert them first, which is done several ways.

1. The observation of crops.

2. Analysis of plant

3. The analysis of soil.

4. Experiments in farm manure.

How to evaluate the fertility of the soil easily, it is quick and easy. The observation of crops. However, this method requires much experience. The result is not quite. And is only some plants because the plants show symptoms when nutrient deficiency is often like that is hard to tell.

The most accurate way is an experiment in farm manure. But this very time-consuming. Due to experimental plots. All they need knowledge of soil fertility. And have to wait until harvest to know.

Plant analysis is how difficult enough. It must determine whether to keep any part of the analysis of plant age or time in storage is also important with

How popular is the extensive analysis of soil. Samples were collected from soil portion And the values ??analyzed. Compared with the standard would have known that soil fertility is much.

What to think and understand is that only the soil is just one factor affecting the growth of plants. There are other factors, many factors such as disease, insect pests and other environmental management, which affect plant growth as well.

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